Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT, Frecker RC, Fagerström KO.

"The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire."
Br J Addict. 1991;(9)1119-27.

I➜ The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, also abbreviated FTND is standard questionnaire, widely used to assess the intensity of physical nicotine addiction and a revision of the previous 8-item Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (FTND) publicated in 1978.
The FTND consists of 6 items that are each rated on a different scale. The higher the Fagerström score (out of 10 possible points), the more intense is the patient's physical dependence on nicotine.

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